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How to manage Terraform state

Headshot of Yevgeniy Brikman

Yevgeniy Brikman

OCT 3, 2016 | 52 min read

Bulkheads in the USS South Dakota. Terraform state benefits from “bulkheads” too. Image from Wikipedia.

Update, November 17, 2016: We took this blog post series, expanded it, and turned it into a book called Terraform: Up & Running!Update, July 8, 2019: We’ve updated this blog post series for Terraform 0.12 and released the 2nd edition of Terraform: Up & Running!Update, Sep 28, 2022: We’ve updated this blog post series for Terraform 1.2 and released the 3rd edition of Terraform: Up & Running!This is Part 3 of the Comprehensive Guide to Terraform series. In Part 1, you learned why we picked Terraform as our IAC tool of choice and not Chef, Puppet, Ansible, Pulumi, or CloudFormation. In Part 2, you got started with the basic syntax and features of Terraform and used them to deploy a cluster of web servers on AWS. In this post, you’ll learn about how Terraform manages state and the impact that has on file layout, isolation, and locking in a Terraform project.Here are the topics we’ll cover:You can find working sample code for the examples in this blog post in the Terraform: Up & Running code samples repo. This blog post corresponds to Chapter 3 of Terraform Up & Running, “How to Manage Terraform State,” so look for the code samples in the 03-terraform-state folders.

If you went through the tutorial in Part 2 of this series, as you were using Terraform to create and update resources, you might have noticed that every time you ran terraform plan or terraform apply, Terraform was able to find the resources it created previously and update them accordingly. But how did Terraform know which resources it was supposed to manage? You could have all sorts of infrastructure in your AWS account, deployed through a variety of mechanisms (some manually, some via Terraform, some via the CLI), so how does Terraform know which infrastructure it’s responsible for?Every time you run Terraform, it records information about what infrastructure it created in a Terraform state file. By default, when you run Terraform in the folder /foo/bar, Terraform creates the file /foo/bar/terraform.tfstate. This file contains a custom JSON format that records a mapping from the Terraform resources in your configuration files to the representation of those resources in the real world. For example, let’s say your Terraform configuration contained the following:
resource "aws_instance" "example" { ami = "ami-0fb653ca2d3203ac1" instance_type = "t2.micro" }
After running terraform apply, here is a small snippet of the contents of the terraform.tfstate file (truncated for readability):
{ "version": 4, "terraform_version": "1.2.3", "serial": 1, "lineage": "86545604-7463-4aa5-e9e8-a2a221de98d2", "outputs": {}, "resources": [ { "mode": "managed", "type": "aws_instance", "name": "example", "provider": "provider[\"\"]", "instances": [ { "schema_version": 1, "attributes": { "ami": "ami-0fb653ca2d3203ac1", "availability_zone": "us-east-2b", "id": "i-0bc4bbe5b84387543", "instance_state": "running", "instance_type": "t2.micro", "(...)": "(truncated)" } } ] } ] }
Using this JSON format, Terraform knows that a resource with type aws_instance and name example corresponds to an EC2 Instance in your AWS account with ID i-0bc4bbe5b84387543. Every time you run Terraform, it can fetch the latest status of this EC2 Instance from AWS and compare that to what’s in your Terraform configurations to determine what changes need to be applied. In other words, the output of the plan command is a diff between the code on your computer and the infrastructure deployed in the real world, as discovered via IDs in the state file.The State File Is a Private API. The state file format is a private API that is meant only for internal use within Terraform. You should never edit the Terraform state files by hand or write code that reads them directly. If for some reason you need to manipulate the state file — which should be a relatively rare occurrence — use the terraform import or terraform state commands (you’ll see examples of both later in this series).If you’re using Terraform for a personal project, storing state in a single terraform.tfstate file that lives locally on your computer works just fine. But if you want to use Terraform as a team on a real product, you run into several problems:
  • Shared storage for state files. To be able to use Terraform to update your infrastructure, each of your team members needs access to the same Terraform state files. That means you need to store those files in a shared location.
  • Locking state files. As soon as data is shared, you run into a new problem: locking. Without locking, if two team members are running Terraform at the same time, you can run into race conditions as multiple Terraform processes make concurrent updates to the state files, leading to conflicts, data loss, and state file corruption.
  • Isolating state files. When making changes to your infrastructure, it’s a best practice to isolate different environments. For example, when making a change in a testing or staging environment, you want to be sure that there is no way you can accidentally break production. But how can you isolate your changes if all of your infrastructure is defined in the same Terraform state file?
In the following sections, I’ll dive into each of these problems and show you how to solve them.

The most common technique for allowing multiple team members to access a common set of files is to put them in version control (e.g., Git). Although you should definitely store your Terraform code in version control, storing Terraform state in version control is a bad idea for the following reasons:
  • Manual error. It’s too easy to forget to pull down the latest changes from version control before running Terraform or to push your latest changes to version control after running Terraform. It’s just a matter of time before someone on your team runs Terraform with out-of-date state files and, as a result, accidentally rolls back or duplicates previous deployments.
  • Locking. Most version control systems do not provide any form of locking that would prevent two team members from running terraform apply on the same state file at the same time.
  • Secrets. All data in Terraform state files is stored in plain text. This is a problem because certain Terraform resources need to store sensitive data. For example, if you use the aws_db_instance resource to create a database, Terraform will store the username and password for the database in a state file in plain text, and you shouldn’t store plain text secrets in version control.
Instead of using version control, the best way to manage shared storage for state files is to use Terraform’s built-in support for remote backends. A Terraform backend determines how Terraform loads and stores state. The default backend, which you’ve been using this entire time, is the local backend, which stores the state file on your local disk. Remote backends allow you to store the state file in a remote, shared store. A number of remote backends are supported, including Amazon S3, Azure Storage, Google Cloud Storage, and HashiCorp’s Terraform Cloud and Terraform Enterprise.Remote backends solve the three issues just listed:
  • Manual error. After you configure a remote backend, Terraform will automatically load the state file from that backend every time you run plan or apply, and it’ll automatically store the state file in that backend after each apply, so there’s no chance of manual error.
  • Locking. Most of the remote backends natively support locking. To run terraform apply, Terraform will automatically acquire a lock; if someone else is already running apply, they will already have the lock, and you will have to wait. You can run apply with the -lock-timeout=<TIME> parameter to instruct Terraform to wait up to TIME for a lock to be released (e.g., -lock-timeout=10m will wait for 10 minutes).
  • Secrets. Most of the remote backends natively support encryption in transit and encryption at rest of the state file. Moreover, those backends usually expose ways to configure access permissions (e.g., using IAM policies with an Amazon S3 bucket), so you can control who has access to your state files and the secrets they might contain. It would be better still if Terraform natively supported encrypting secrets within the state file, but these remote backends reduce most of the security concerns, given that at least the state file isn’t stored in plain text on disk anywhere.
If you’re using Terraform with AWS, Amazon S3 (Simple Storage Service), which is Amazon’s managed file store, is typically your best bet as a remote backend for the following reasons:
  • It’s a managed service, so you don’t need to deploy and manage extra infrastructure to use it.
  • It’s designed for 99.999999999% durability and 99.99% availability, which means you don’t need to worry too much about data loss or outages.
  • It supports encryption, which reduces worries about storing sensitive data in state files. You still have to be very careful who on your team can access the S3 bucket, but at least the data will be encrypted at rest (Amazon S3 supports server-side encryption using AES-256) and in transit (Terraform uses TLS when talking to Amazon S3).
  • It supports locking via DynamoDB. (More on this later.)
  • It supports versioning, so every revision of your state file is stored, and you can roll back to an older version if something goes wrong.
  • It’s inexpensive, with most Terraform usage easily fitting into the AWS Free Tier.
To enable remote state storage with Amazon S3, the first step is to create an S3 bucket. Create a file in a new folder (it should be a different folder from where you store the configurations from Part 1 of this series), and at the top of the file, specify AWS as the provider:
provider "aws" { region = "us-east-2" }
Next, create an S3 bucket by using the aws_s3_bucket resource:
resource "aws_s3_bucket" "terraform_state" { bucket = "terraform-up-and-running-state" # Prevent accidental deletion of this S3 bucket lifecycle { prevent_destroy = true } }
This code sets the following arguments:
  • bucket: This is the name of the S3 bucket. Note that S3 bucket names must be globally unique among all AWS customers. Therefore, you will need to change the bucket parameter from “terraform-up-and-running-state” (which I already created) to your own name. Make sure to remember this name and take note of what AWS region you’re using because you’ll need both pieces of information again a little later on.
  • prevent_destroy: prevent_destroy is the second lifecycle setting you’ve seen (the first was create_before_destroy in Part 2 of this series). When you set prevent_destroy to true on a resource, any attempt to delete that resource (e.g., by running terraform destroy) will cause Terraform to exit with an error. This is a good way to prevent accidental deletion of an important resource, such as this S3 bucket, which will store all of your Terraform state. Of course, if you really mean to delete it, you can just comment that setting out.
Let’s now add several extra layers of protection to this S3 bucket.First, use the aws_s3_bucket_versioning resource to enable versioning on the S3 bucket so that every update to a file in the bucket actually creates a new version of that file. This allows you to see older versions of the file and revert to those older versions at any time, which can be a useful fallback mechanism if something goes wrong:
resource "aws_s3_bucket_versioning" "enabled" { bucket = versioning_configuration { status = "Enabled" } }
Second, use the aws_s3_bucket_server_side_encryption_configuration resource to turn server-side encryption on by default for all data written to this S3 bucket. This ensures that your state files, and any secrets they might contain, are always encrypted on disk when stored in S3:
resource "aws_s3_bucket_server_side_encryption_configuration" "default" { bucket = rule { apply_server_side_encryption_by_default { sse_algorithm = "AES256" } } }
Third, use the aws_s3_bucket_public_access_block resource to block all public access to the S3 bucket. S3 buckets are private by default, but as they are often used to serve static content — e.g., images, fonts, CSS, JS, HTML — it is possible, even easy, to make the buckets public. Since your Terraform state files may contain sensitive data and secrets, it’s worth adding this extra layer of protection to ensure no one on your team can ever accidentally make this S3 bucket public:
resource "aws_s3_bucket_public_access_block" "public_access" { bucket = block_public_acls = true block_public_policy = true ignore_public_acls = true restrict_public_buckets = true }
Next, you need to create a DynamoDB table to use for locking. DynamoDB is Amazon’s distributed key-value store. It supports strongly consistent reads and conditional writes, which are all the ingredients you need for a distributed lock system. Moreover, it’s completely managed, so you don’t have any infrastructure to run yourself, and it’s inexpensive, with most Terraform usage easily fitting into the AWS Free Tier.To use DynamoDB for locking with Terraform, you must create a DynamoDB table that has a primary key called LockID (with this exact spelling and capitalization). You can create such a table using the aws_dynamodb_table resource:
resource "aws_dynamodb_table" "terraform_locks" { name = "terraform-up-and-running-locks" billing_mode = "PAY_PER_REQUEST" hash_key = "LockID" attribute { name = "LockID" type = "S" } }
Run terraform init to download the provider code, and then run terraform apply to deploy. After everything is deployed, you will have an S3 bucket and DynamoDB table, but your Terraform state will still be stored locally. To configure Terraform to store the state in your S3 bucket (with encryption and locking), you need to add a backend configuration to your Terraform code. This is configuration for Terraform itself, so it resides within a terraform block and has the following syntax:
terraform { backend "<BACKEND_NAME>" { [CONFIG...] } }
where BACKEND_NAME is the name of the backend you want to use (e.g., “s3”) and CONFIG consists of one or more arguments that are specific to that backend (e.g., the name of the S3 bucket to use). Here’s what the backend configuration looks like for an S3 bucket:
terraform { backend "s3" { # Replace this with your bucket name! bucket = "terraform-up-and-running-state" key = "global/s3/terraform.tfstate" region = "us-east-2" # Replace this with your DynamoDB table name! dynamodb_table = "terraform-up-and-running-locks" encrypt = true } }
Let’s go through these settings one at a time:
  • bucket: The name of the S3 bucket to use. Make sure to replace this with the name of the S3 bucket you created earlier.
  • key: The filepath within the S3 bucket where the Terraform state file should be written. You’ll see a little later on why the preceding example code sets this to global/s3/terraform.tfstate.
  • region: The AWS region where the S3 bucket lives. Make sure to replace this with the region of the S3 bucket you created earlier.
  • dynamodb_table: The DynamoDB table to use for locking. Make sure to replace this with the name of the DynamoDB table you created earlier.
  • encrypt: Setting this to true ensures that your Terraform state will be encrypted on disk when stored in S3. We already enabled default encryption in the S3 bucket itself, so this is here as a second layer to ensure that the data is always encrypted.
To instruct Terraform to store your state file in this S3 bucket, you’re going to use the terraform init command again. This command not only can download provider code, but also configure your Terraform backend (and you’ll see yet another use later on, too). Moreover, the init command is idempotent, so it’s safe to run it multiple times:
$ terraform init Initializing the backend... Acquiring state lock. This may take a few moments... Do you want to copy existing state to the new backend? Pre-existing state was found while migrating the previous "local" backend to the newly configured "s3" backend. No existing state was found in the newly configured "s3" backend. Do you want to copy this state to the new "s3" backend? Enter "yes" to copy and "no" to start with an empty state. Enter a value:
Terraform will automatically detect that you already have a state file locally and prompt you to copy it to the new S3 backend. If you type yes, you should see the following:
Successfully configured the backend "s3"! Terraform will automatically use this backend unless the backend configuration changes.
After running this command, your Terraform state will be stored in the S3 bucket. You can check this by heading over to the S3 Management Console in your browser and clicking your bucket. You should see something similar to this:
With this backend enabled, Terraform will automatically pull the latest state from this S3 bucket before running a command and automatically push the latest state to the S3 bucket after running a command. To see this in action, add the following output variables:
output "s3_bucket_arn" { value = aws_s3_bucket.terraform_state.arn description = "The ARN of the S3 bucket" } output "dynamodb_table_name" { value = description = "The name of the DynamoDB table" }
These variables will print out the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of your S3 bucket and the name of your DynamoDB table. Run terraform apply to see it:
$ terraform apply (...) Acquiring state lock. This may take a few moments... aws_dynamodb_table.terraform_locks: Refreshing state... aws_s3_bucket.terraform_state: Refreshing state... Apply complete! Resources: 0 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed. Releasing state lock. This may take a few moments... Outputs: dynamodb_table_name = "terraform-up-and-running-locks" s3_bucket_arn = "arn:aws:s3:::terraform-up-and-running-state"
Note how Terraform is now acquiring a lock before running apply and releasing the lock after!Now, head over to the S3 console again, refresh the page, and click the gray Show button next to Versions. You should now see several versions of your terraform.tfstate file in the S3 bucket:
This means that Terraform is automatically pushing and pulling state data to and from S3, and S3 is storing every revision of the state file, which can be useful for debugging and rolling back to older versions if something goes wrong.

Terraform’s backends have a few limitations and gotchas that you need to be aware of. The first limitation is the chicken-and-egg situation of using Terraform to create the S3 bucket where you want to store your Terraform state. To make this work, you had to use a two-step process:
  • 1.Write Terraform code to create the S3 bucket and DynamoDB table, and deploy that code with a local backend.
  • 2.Go back to the Terraform code, add a remote backend configuration to it to use the newly created S3 bucket and DynamoDB table, and run terraform init to copy your local state to S3.
If you ever wanted to delete the S3 bucket and DynamoDB table, you’d have to do this two-step process in reverse:
  • 1.Go to the Terraform code, remove the backend configuration, and rerun terraform init to copy the Terraform state back to your local disk.
  • 2.Run terraform destroy to delete the S3 bucket and DynamoDB table.
This two-step process is a bit awkward, but the good news is that you can share a single S3 bucket and DynamoDB table across all of your Terraform code, so you’ll probably only need to do it once (or once per AWS account if you have multiple accounts). After the S3 bucket exists, in the rest of your Terraform code, you can specify the backend configuration right from the start without any extra steps.The second limitation is more painful: the backend block in Terraform does not allow you to use any variables or references. The following code will not work:
# This will NOT work. Variables aren't allowed in a backend configuration. terraform { backend "s3" { bucket = var.bucket region = var.region dynamodb_table = var.dynamodb_table key = "example/terraform.tfstate" encrypt = true } }
This means that you need to manually copy and paste the S3 bucket name, region, DynamoDB table name, etc., into every one of your Terraform modules (you’ll learn all about Terraform modules in Part 4 of this series; for now, it’s enough to understand that modules are a way to organize and reuse Terraform code and that real-world Terraform code typically consists of many small modules). Even worse, you must very carefully not copy and paste the key value but ensure a unique key for every Terraform module you deploy so that you don’t accidentally overwrite the state of some other module! Having to do lots of copy-and-pastes and lots of manual changes is error prone, especially if you need to deploy and manage many Terraform modules across many environments.One option for reducing copy-and-paste is to use partial configurations, where you omit certain parameters from the backend configuration in your Terraform code and instead pass those in via -backend-config command-line arguments when calling terraform init. For example, you could extract the repeated backend arguments, such as bucket and region, into a separate file called backend.hcl:
# backend.hcl bucket = "terraform-up-and-running-state" region = "us-east-2" dynamodb_table = "terraform-up-and-running-locks" encrypt = true
Only the key parameter remains in the Terraform code, since you still need to set a different key value for each module:
# Partial configuration. The other settings (e.g., bucket, region) # will be passed in from a file via -backend-config arguments to # 'terraform init' terraform { backend "s3" { key = "example/terraform.tfstate" } }
To put all your partial configurations together, run terraform init with the -backend-config argument:
$ terraform init -backend-config=backend.hcl
Terraform merges the partial configuration in backend.hcl with the partial configuration in your Terraform code to produce the full configuration used by your module. You can use the same backend.hcl file with all of your modules, which reduces duplication considerably; however, you’ll still need to manually set a unique key value in every module.Another option for reducing copy-and-paste is to use Terragrunt, an open source tool that tries to fill in a few gaps in Terraform. Terragrunt can help you keep your entire backend configuration DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself) by defining all the basic backend settings (bucket name, region, DynamoDB table name) in one file and automatically setting the key argument to the relative folder path of the module.You’ll see an example of how to use Terragrunt in How to use Terraform as a team.

With a remote backend and locking, collaboration is no longer a problem. However, there is still one more problem remaining: isolation. When you first start using Terraform, you might be tempted to define all of your infrastructure in a single Terraform file or a single set of Terraform files in one folder. The problem with this approach is that all of your Terraform state is now stored in a single file, too, and a mistake anywhere could break everything.For example, while trying to deploy a new version of your app in staging, you might break the app in production. Or, worse yet, you might corrupt your entire state file, either because you didn’t use locking or due to a rare Terraform bug, and now all of your infrastructure in all environments is broken (here’s a colorful example of what happens when you don’t isolate Terraform state.)The whole point of having separate environments is that they are isolated from one another, so if you are managing all the environments from a single set of Terraform configurations, you are breaking that isolation. Just as a ship has bulkheads that act as barriers to prevent a leak in one part of the ship from immediately flooding all the others, you should have “bulkheads” built into your Terraform design:
As the diagram above illustrates, instead of defining all your environments in a single set of Terraform configurations (top), you want to define each environment in a separate set of configurations (bottom), so a problem in one environment is completely isolated from the others. There are two ways you could isolate state files:
  • Isolation via workspaces: Useful for quick, isolated tests on the same configuration
  • Isolation via file layout: Useful for production use cases for which you need strong separation between environments
Let’s dive into each of these in the next two sections.

Terraform workspaces allow you to store your Terraform state in multiple, separate, named workspaces. Terraform starts with a single workspace called “default,” and if you never explicitly specify a workspace, the default workspace is the one you’ll use the entire time. To create a new workspace or switch between workspaces, you use the terraform workspace commands. Let’s experiment with workspaces on some Terraform code that deploys a single EC2 Instance:
resource "aws_instance" "example" { ami = "ami-0fb653ca2d3203ac1" instance_type = "t2.micro" }
Configure a backend for this Instance using the S3 bucket and DynamoDB table you created earlier but with the key set to workspaces-example/terraform.tfstate:
terraform { backend "s3" { # Replace this with your bucket name! bucket = "terraform-up-and-running-state" key = "workspaces-example/terraform.tfstate" region = "us-east-2" # Replace this with your DynamoDB table name! dynamodb_table = "terraform-up-and-running-locks" encrypt = true } }
Run terraform init and terraform apply to deploy this code:
$ terraform init Initializing the backend... Successfully configured the backend "s3"! Terraform will automatically use this backend unless the backend configuration changes. Initializing provider plugins... (...) Terraform has been successfully initialized! $ terraform apply (...) Apply complete! Resources: 1 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.
The state for this deployment is stored in the default workspace. You can confirm this by running the terraform workspace show command, which will identify which workspace you’re currently in:
$ terraform workspace show default
The default workspace stores your state in exactly the location you specify via the key configuration. If you take a look in your S3 bucket, you’ll find a terraform.tfstate file in the workspaces-example folder:
Let’s create a new workspace called “example1” using the terraform workspace new command:
$ terraform workspace new example1 Created and switched to workspace "example1"! You're now on a new, empty workspace. Workspaces isolate their state, so if you run "terraform plan" Terraform will not see any existing state for this configuration.
Now, note what happens if you try to run terraform plan:
$ terraform plan Terraform will perform the following actions: # aws_instance.example will be created + resource "aws_instance" "example" { + ami = "ami-0fb653ca2d3203ac1" + instance_type = "t2.micro" (...) } Plan: 1 to add, 0 to change, 0 to destroy.
Terraform wants to create a totally new EC2 Instance from scratch! That’s because the state files in each workspace are isolated from one another, and because you’re now in the example1 workspace, Terraform isn’t using the state file from the default workspace and therefore doesn’t see the EC2 Instance was already created there.Try running terraform apply to deploy this second EC2 Instance in the new workspace:
$ terraform apply (...) Apply complete! Resources: 1 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.
Repeat the exercise one more time and create another workspace called “example2”:
$ terraform workspace new example2 Created and switched to workspace "example2"! You're now on a new, empty workspace. Workspaces isolate their state, so if you run "terraform plan" Terraform will not see any existing state for this configuration.
Run terraform apply again to deploy a third EC2 Instance:
$ terraform apply (...) Apply complete! Resources: 1 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed.
You now have three workspaces available, which you can see by using the terraform workspace list command:
$ terraform workspace list default example1 * example2
And you can switch between them at any time using the terraform workspace select command:
$ terraform workspace select example1 Switched to workspace "example1".
To understand how this works under the hood, take a look again in your S3 bucket, you should now see a new folder called env:
Inside the env: folder, you’ll find one folder for each of your workspaces:
Inside each of those workspaces, Terraform uses the key you specified in your backend configuration, so you should find an example1/workspaces-example/terraform.tfstate and an example2/workspaces-example/terraform.tfstate. In other words, switching to a different workspace is equivalent to changing the path where your state file is stored.This is handy when you already have a Terraform module deployed and you want to do some experiments with it (e.g., try to refactor the code) but you don’t want your experiments to affect the state of the already-deployed infrastructure. Terraform workspaces allow you to run terraform workspace new and deploy a new copy of the exact same infrastructure, but storing the state in a separate file.In fact, you can even change how that module behaves based on the workspace you’re in by reading the workspace name using the expression terraform.workspace. For example, here’s how to set the Instance type to t2.medium in the default workspace and t2.micro in all other workspaces (e.g., to save money when experimenting):
resource "aws_instance" "example" { ami = "ami-0fb653ca2d3203ac1" instance_type = ( terraform.workspace == "default" ? "t2.medium" : "t2.micro" ) }
The preceding code uses ternary syntax to conditionally set instance_type to either t2.medium or t2.micro, depending on the value of terraform.workspace. You’ll see the full details of ternary syntax and conditional logic in Part 5 of this series.Terraform workspaces can be a great way to quickly spin up and tear down different versions of your code, but they have a few drawbacks:
  • The state files for all of your workspaces are stored in the same backend (e.g., the same S3 bucket). That means you use the same authentication and access controls for all the workspaces, which is one major reason workspaces are an unsuitable mechanism for isolating environments (e.g., isolating staging from production).
  • Workspaces are not visible in the code or on the terminal unless you run terraform workspace commands. When browsing the code, a module that has been deployed in one workspace looks exactly the same as a module deployed in 10 workspaces. This makes maintenance more difficult, because you don’t have a good picture of your infrastructure.
  • Putting the two previous items together, the result is that workspaces can be fairly error prone. The lack of visibility makes it easy to forget what workspace you’re in and accidentally deploy changes in the wrong one (e.g., accidentally running terraform destroy in a “production” workspace rather than a “staging” workspace), and because you must use the same authentication mechanism for all workspaces, you have no other layers of defense to protect against such errors.
Due to these drawbacks, workspaces are not a suitable mechanism for isolating one environment from another: e.g., isolating staging from production (the workspaces documentation makes this same exact point, but it’s buried among several paragraphs of text, and as workspaces used to be called “environments,” I find many users are still confused about when and when not to use workspaces). To get proper isolation between environments, instead of workspaces, you’ll most likely want to use file layout, which is the topic of the next section.Before moving on, make sure to clean up the three EC2 Instances you just deployed by running terraform workspace select <name> and terraform destroy in each of the three workspaces.

To achieve full isolation between environments, you need to do the following:
  • Put the Terraform configuration files for each environment into a separate folder. For example, all of the configurations for the staging environment can be in a folder called stage and all the configurations for the production environment can be in a folder called prod.
  • Configure a different backend for each environment, using different authentication mechanisms and access controls: e.g., each environment could live in a separate AWS account with a separate S3 bucket as a backend.
With this approach, the use of separate folders makes it much clearer which environments you’re deploying to, and the use of separate state files, with separate authentication mechanisms, makes it significantly less likely that a screw-up in one environment can have any impact on another.In fact, you might want to take the isolation concept beyond environments and down to the “component” level, where a component is a coherent set of resources that you typically deploy together. For example, after you’ve set up the basic network topology for your infrastructure — in AWS lingo, your Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) and all the associated subnets, routing rules, VPNs, and network ACLs — you will probably change it only once every few months, at most. On the other hand, you might deploy a new version of a web server multiple times per day. If you manage the infrastructure for both the VPC component and the web server component in the same set of Terraform configurations, you are unnecessarily putting your entire network topology at risk of breakage (e.g., from a simple typo in the code or someone accidentally running the wrong command) multiple times per day.Therefore, I recommend using separate Terraform folders (and therefore separate state files) for each environment (staging, production, etc.) and for each component (VPC, services, databases) within that environment. To see what this looks like in practice, let’s go through the recommended file layout for Terraform projects.Here’s the file layout for my typical Terraform project:
At the top level, there are separate folders for each “environment.” The exact environments differ for every project, but the typical ones are as follows:
  • stage: An environment for pre-production workloads (i.e., testing)
  • prod: An environment for production workloads (i.e., user-facing apps)
  • mgmt: An environment for DevOps tooling (e.g., bastion host, CI server)
  • global: A place to put resources that are used across all environments (e.g., S3, IAM)
Within each environment, there are separate folders for each “component.” The components differ for every project, but here are the typical ones:
  • vpc: The network topology for this environment.
  • services: The apps or microservices to run in this environment, such as a Ruby on Rails frontend or a Scala backend. Each app could even live in its own folder to isolate it from all the other apps.
  • data-storage: The data stores to run in this environment, such as MySQL or Redis. Each data store could even reside in its own folder to isolate it from all other data stores.
Within each component, there are the actual Terraform configuration files, which are organized according to the following naming conventions:
  • Input variables
  • Output variables
  • Resources and data sources
When you run Terraform, it simply looks for files in the current directory with the .tf extension, so you can use whatever filenames you want. However, although Terraform may not care about filenames, your teammates probably do. Using a consistent, predictable naming convention makes your code easier to browse: e.g., you’ll always know where to look to find a variable, output, or resource.Note that the preceding convention is the minimum convention you should follow, because in virtually all uses of Terraform, it’s useful to be able to jump to the input variables, output variables, and resources very quickly, but you may want to go beyond this convention. Here are just a few examples:
  • It’s common to put all your data sources in a file to make it easier to see what external things the code depends on.
  • You may want to put your provider blocks into a file so you can see, at a glance, what providers the code talks to and what authentication you’ll have to provide.
  • If the file is getting really long because it contains a large number of resources, you could break it down into smaller files that group the resources in some logical way: e.g., could contain all the IAM resources, could contain all the S3 resources, and so on. Using the main- prefix makes it easier to scan the list of files in a folder when they are organized alphabetically, as all the resources will be grouped together. It’s also worth noting that if you find yourself managing a very large number of resources and struggling to break them down across many files, that might be a sign that you should break your code into smaller modules instead, which is a topic I’ll dive into in Part 4 of this series.
Let’s take the web server cluster code you wrote in Part 2 of the series, plus the Amazon S3 and DynamoDB code you wrote in this blog post, and rearrange it using the following folder structure:
The S3 bucket you created in this blog post should be moved into the global/s3 folder. Move the output variables (s3_bucket_arn and dynamodb_table_name) into When moving the folder, make sure that you don’t miss the (hidden) .terraform folder when copying files to the new location so you don’t need to reinitialize everything.The web server cluster you created in Part 2 of the series should be moved into stage/services/webserver-cluster (think of this as the “testing” or “staging” version of that web server cluster; you’ll add a “production” version in the next part of this series). Again, make sure to copy over the .terraform folder, move input variables into, and move output variables into should also update the web server cluster to use S3 as a backend. You can copy and paste the backend config from global/s3/ more or less verbatim, but make sure to change the key to the same folder path as the web server Terraform code: stage/services/webserver-cluster/terraform.tfstate. This gives you a 1:1 mapping between the layout of your Terraform code in version control and your Terraform state files in S3, so it’s obvious how the two are connected. The s3 module already sets the key using this convention.This file layout has a number of advantages:
  • Clear code / environment layout: It’s easy to browse the code and understand exactly what components are deployed in each environment.
  • Isolation: This layout provides a good amount of isolation between environments and between components within an environment, ensuring that if something goes wrong, the damage is contained as much as possible to just one small part of your entire infrastructure.
In some ways, these advantages are drawbacks, too:
  • Working with multiple folders: Splitting components into separate folders prevents you from accidentally blowing up your entire infrastructure in one command, but it also prevents you from creating your entire infrastructure in one command. If all of the components for a single environment were defined in a single Terraform configuration, you could spin up an entire environment with a single call to terraform apply. But if all of the components are in separate folders, then you need to run terraform apply separately in each one. Solution: If you use Terragrunt, you can run commands across multiple folders concurrently using the run-all command.
  • Copy/paste: The file layout described in this section has a lot of duplication. For example, the same frontend-app and backend-app live in both the stage and prod folders. Solution: You won’t actually need to copy and paste all of that code! In Part 4 of this series, you’ll see how to use Terraform modules to keep all of this code DRY.
  • Resource dependencies: Breaking the code into multiple folders makes it more difficult to use resource dependencies. If your app code was defined in the same Terraform configuration files as the database code, that app code could directly access attributes of the database using an attribute reference (e.g., access the database address via But if the app code and database code live in different folders, as I’ve recommended, you can no longer do that. Solution: One option is to use dependency blocks in Terragrunt, as you’ll see in How to use Terraform as a Team. Another option is to use the terraform_remote_state data source, as described in the next section.

In Part 2, An Introduction to Terraform, you used data sources to fetch read-only information from AWS, such as the aws_subnets data source, which returns a list of subnets in your VPC. There is another data source that is particularly useful when working with state: terraform_remote_state. You can use this data source to fetch the Terraform state file stored by another set of Terraform configurations.Let’s go through an example. Imagine that your web server cluster needs to communicate with a MySQL database. Running a database that is scalable, secure, durable, and highly available is a lot of work. Again, you can let AWS take care of it for you, this time by using Amazon’s Relational Database Service (RDS). RDS supports a variety of databases, including MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQL Server, and Oracle.
You might not want to define the MySQL database in the same set of configuration files as the web server cluster, because you’ll be deploying updates to the web server cluster far more frequently and don’t want to risk accidentally breaking the database each time you do so.Therefore, your first step should be to create a new folder at stage/data-stores/mysql and create the basic Terraform files (,, within it:
Next, create the database resources in stage/data-stores/mysql/
provider "aws" { region = "us-east-2" } resource "aws_db_instance" "example" { identifier_prefix = "terraform-up-and-running" engine = "mysql" allocated_storage = 10 instance_class = "db.t2.micro" skip_final_snapshot = true db_name = "example_database" # How should we set the username and password? username = "???" password = "???" }
At the top of the file, you see the typical provider block, but just below that is a new resource: aws_db_instance. This resource creates a database in RDS with the following settings:
  • MySQL as the database engine.
  • 10 GB of storage.
  • A db.t2.micro Instance, which has one virtual CPU, 1 GB of memory, and is part of the AWS Free Tier.
  • The final snapshot is disabled, as this code is just for learning and testing (if you don’t disable the snapshot, or don’t provide a name for the snapshot via the final_snapshot_identifier parameter, destroy will fail).
Note that two of the parameters that you must pass to the aws_db_instance resource are the master username and master password. Because these are secrets, you should not put them directly into your code in plain text! In A comprehensive guide to managing secrets in your Terraform code, I discuss a variety of options for how to securely handle secrets with Terraform. For now, let’s use an option that avoids storing any secrets in plain text and is easy to use: you store your secrets, such as database passwords, outside of Terraform (e.g., in a password manager such as 1Password, LastPass, or macOS Keychain), and you pass those secrets into Terraform via environment variables.To do that, declare variables called db_username and db_password in stage/data-stores/mysql/
variable "db_username" { description = "The username for the database" type = string sensitive = true } variable "db_password" { description = "The password for the database" type = string sensitive = true }
First, note that these variables are marked with sensitive = true to indicate they contain secrets. This ensures Terraform won’t log the values when you run plan or apply. Second, note that these variables do not have a default. This is intentional. You should not store your database credentials or any sensitive information in plain text. Instead, you’ll set these variables using environment variables.Before doing that, let’s finish the code. First, pass the two new input variables through to the aws_db_instance resource:
resource "aws_db_instance" "example" { identifier_prefix = "terraform-up-and-running" engine = "mysql" allocated_storage = 10 instance_class = "db.t2.micro" skip_final_snapshot = true db_name = "example_database" username = var.db_username password = var.db_password }
Next, configure this module to store its state in the S3 bucket you created earlier at the path stage/data-stores/mysql/terraform.tfstate:
terraform { backend "s3" { # Replace this with your bucket name! bucket = "terraform-up-and-running-state" key = "stage/data-stores/mysql/terraform.tfstate" region = "us-east-2" # Replace this with your DynamoDB table name! dynamodb_table = "terraform-up-and-running-locks" encrypt = true } }
Finally, add two output variables in stage/data-stores/mysql/ to return the database’s address and port:
output "address" { value = aws_db_instance.example.address description = "Connect to the database at this endpoint" } output "port" { value = aws_db_instance.example.port description = "The port the database is listening on" }
You’re now ready to pass in the database username and password using environment variables. As a reminder, for each input variable foo defined in your Terraform configurations, you can provide Terraform the value of this variable using the environment variable TF_VAR_foo. For the db_username and db_password input variables, here is how you can set the TF_VAR_db_username and TF_VAR_db_password environment variables on Linux/Unix/macOS systems:
$ export TF_VAR_db_username="(YOUR_DB_USERNAME)" $ export TF_VAR_db_password="(YOUR_DB_PASSWORD)"
And here is how you do it on Windows systems:
$ set TF_VAR_db_username="(YOUR_DB_USERNAME)" $ set TF_VAR_db_password="(YOUR_DB_PASSWORD)"
Run terraform init and terraform apply to create the database. Note that Amazon RDS can take roughly 10 minutes to provision even a small database, so be patient. After apply completes, you should see the outputs in the terminal:
$ terraform apply (...) Apply complete! Resources: 1 added, 0 changed, 0 destroyed. Outputs: address = "" port = 3306
These outputs are now also stored in the Terraform state for the database, which is in your S3 bucket at the path stage/data-stores/mysql/terraform.tfstate.If you go back to your web server cluster code, you can get the web server to read those outputs from the database’s state file by adding the terraform_remote_state data source in stage/services/webserver-cluster/
data "terraform_remote_state" "db" { backend = "s3" config = { bucket = "(YOUR_BUCKET_NAME)" key = "stage/data-stores/mysql/terraform.tfstate" region = "us-east-2" } }
This terraform_remote_state data source configures the web server cluster code to read the state file from the same S3 bucket and folder where the database stores its state:
It’s important to understand that, like all Terraform data sources, the data returned by terraform_remote_state is read-only. Nothing you do in your web server cluster Terraform code can modify that state, so you can pull in the database’s state data with no risk of causing any problems in the database itself.All of the database’s output variables are stored in the state file, and you can read them from the terraform_remote_state data source using an attribute reference of the form:
For example, here is how you can update the User Data of the web server cluster Instances to pull the database address and port out of the terraform_remote_state data source and expose that information in the HTTP response:
user_data = <<EOF #!/bin/bash echo "Hello, World" >> index.html echo "${data.terraform_remote_state.db.outputs.address}">>index.html echo "${data.terraform_remote_state.db.outputs.port}">>index.html nohup busybox httpd -f -p ${var.server_port} & EOF
As the User Data script is growing longer, defining it inline is becoming messier and messier. In general, embedding one programming language (Bash) inside another (Terraform) makes it more difficult to maintain each one, so let’s pause here for a moment to externalize the Bash script. To do that, you can use the templatefile built-in function.Terraform includes a number of built-in functions that you can execute using an expression of the form:
For example, consider the format function:
format(<FMT>, <ARGS>, ...)
This function formats the arguments in ARGS according to the sprintf syntax in the string FMT. A great way to experiment with built-in functions is to run the terraform console command to get an interactive console where you can try out Terraform syntax, query the state of your infrastructure, and see the results instantly:
$ terraform console > format("%.3f", 3.14159265359) 3.142
Note that the Terraform console is read-only, so you don’t need to worry about accidentally changing infrastructure or state.There are a number of other built-in functions that you can use to manipulate strings, numbers, lists, and maps. One of them is the templatefile function:
templatefile(<PATH>, <VARS>)
This function reads the file at PATH, renders it as a template, and returns the result as a string. When I say “renders it as a template,” what I mean is that the file at PATH can use the string interpolation syntax in Terraform (${…}), and Terraform will render the contents of that file, filling variable references from VARS.To see this in action, put the contents of the User Data script into the file stage/services/webserver-cluster/ as follows:
#!/bin/bash cat > index.html <<EOF <h1>Hello, World</h1> <p>DB address: ${db_address}</p> <p>DB port: ${db_port}</p> EOF nohup busybox httpd -f -p ${server_port} &
Note that this Bash script has a few changes from the original:
  • It looks up variables using Terraform’s standard interpolation syntax, except the only variables it has access to are those you pass in via the second parameter to templatefile (as you’ll see shortly), so you don’t need any prefix to access them: for example, you should use ${server_port} and not ${var.server_port}.
  • The script now includes some HTML syntax (e.g., <h1>) to make the output a bit more readable in a web browser.
The final step is to update the user_data parameter of the aws_launch_configuration resource to call the templatefile function and pass in the variables it needs as a map:
resource "aws_launch_configuration" "example" { image_id = "ami-0fb653ca2d3203ac1" instance_type = "t2.micro" security_groups = [] # Render the User Data script as a template user_data = templatefile("", { server_port = var.server_port db_address = data.terraform_remote_state.db.outputs.address db_port = data.terraform_remote_state.db.outputs.port }) # Required when using a launch configuration with an ASG. lifecycle { create_before_destroy = true } }
Ah, that’s much cleaner than writing Bash scripts inline!If you deploy this cluster using terraform apply, wait for the Instances to register in the ALB, and open the ALB URL in a web browser, you’ll see something similar to this:
Congrats, your web server cluster can now programmatically access the database address and port via Terraform. If you were using a real web framework (e.g., Ruby on Rails), you could set the address and port as environment variables or write them to a config file so that they could be used by your database library (e.g., ActiveRecord) to communicate with the database.

The reason you need to put so much thought into isolation, locking, and state is that infrastructure as code (IaC) has different trade-offs than normal coding. When you’re writing code for a typical app, most bugs are relatively minor and break only a small part of a single app. When you’re writing code that controls your infrastructure, bugs tend to be more severe, given that they can break all of your apps — and all of your data stores, and your entire network topology, and just about everything else. Therefore, I recommend including more “safety mechanisms” when working on IaC than with typical code.A common concern of using the recommended file layout is that it leads to code duplication. If you want to run the web server cluster in both staging and production, how do you avoid having to copy and paste a lot of code between stage/services/webserver-cluster and prod/services/webserver-cluster? The answer is that you need to use Terraform modules, which are the main topic of Part 4 of the series, How to create reusable infrastructure with Terraform modules.For an expanded version of this blog post series, pick up a copy of the book Terraform: Up & Running (3rd edition available now!). If you need help with Terraform, DevOps practices, or AWS at your company, feel free to reach out to us at Gruntwork.

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